State language of instruction, rights and prohibitions: key from the Law on National Minorities signed by the President
Most of all, the adopted law may be outraged by the Hungarians, who have previously criticized the language law.
The President of Ukraine Vladimir Zelensky signed law “On national minorities in Ukraine”, which was adopted as part of a package of European integration laws. We tell what now awaits the national minorities in Ukraine, what rights they have, and also what is strictly forbidden to them.
According to the adopted law, the national minority is defined as a permanent group of citizens of Ukraine who are not ethnic Ukrainians, traditionally reside on the territory of Ukraine, are united by common ethnic, cultural, historical, linguistic and / or religious characteristics, are aware of their belonging to it, show a desire to preserve and develop their linguistic, cultural, religious identity.
Enshrined minority rights
- The implementation of the integration policy by the state presupposes abstaining from the policy and practice of assimilation persons belonging to national minorities (communities) against their will, and protection of these persons from any actions aimed at such assimilation.
- The state guarantees to persons belonging to national minorities (communities) the protection of their rights, freedoms and legally protected interests in the manner prescribed by law.
- Prohibition of discrimination national minorities. At the same time, actions that have a legitimate, objectively justified purpose and are aimed at eliminating legal or actual inequality in the opportunities for exercising the rights and freedoms of persons belonging to national minorities are not considered discrimination.
Additionally, members of national minorities have the right to:
- freedom of public associations and peaceful assembly;
- freedom of expression of views and beliefs, thought, speech, conscience and religion;
- participation in political, economic and social life;
- use of a minority language (communities);
- education, including in the languages of national minorities (communities);
- preservation of the cultural identity of the national minority (community).
And there are also prohibitions.
Implementation and / or protection of the rights and freedoms of persons belonging to national minorities, may be restricted by law in the interests of national security, territorial integrity and public order, to prevent disorder or crime, to protect the health of the population, to protect the rights and freedoms of persons, if such restriction is necessary in a democratic society.
When exercising the rights and freedoms of national minorities, it is prohibited popularization or propaganda of the terrorist state (aggressor state) and its organs, the Russian Nazi totalitarian regime, the symbols of the military invasion of the Russian Nazi totalitarian regime in Ukraine, representatives of the authorities of the terrorist state and their actions that create a positive image of the terrorist state, justify or recognize lawful armed aggression of the Russian Federation as a terrorist state against Ukraine, the occupation of the territory of Ukraine.
In addition, persons belonging to national minorities and their public associations are prohibited from cooperating and receiving assistance from foreign states and individuals, non-governmental organizations of other states, international non-governmental organizations, foundations and other foreign institutions whose activities are aimed at eliminating the independence of Ukraine, changing the constitutional building by force, violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, undermining its security, illegal seizure of state power, propaganda of war, violence, incitement of interethnic, racial, religious hatred, infringement on human rights and freedoms, health and population.
Features of using the native language
Public events organized and conducted by representatives of national minorities may be conducted in the language of the national minority. And announcements, posters, signs, etc. if necessary can duplicated in a minority language. If pre-election campaigning is carried out, in settlements where national minorities live compactly, it is allowed to distribute materials made in the Ukrainian language, with simultaneous duplication in the language of the national minority.
Minority languages can be used in the media in accordance with the law - that is, in accordance with language quotas. We talked about the language law in more detail in the link material. At the same time, national minorities have the right to create their own media.
Language law restrictions do not apply only to specialized bookstores created to exercise the rights of such communities.
Free choice of the language of the educational process will have only private educational institutionsin which educational services are provided for the money of individuals or legal entities. At the same time, they are obliged to ensure that children learn the state language.
In all other cases, national minorities will receive education in the state language.
Hungary will oppose?
The law has been adopted and is coming into force, and the main point of contention in it may be the preservation of the language law, which Hungary actively opposed.
Ukraine may feel the political consequences of it later. Thus, Deputy Prime Minister for European and Euro-Atlantic Integration of Ukraine Olga Stefanishina statedthat after the adoption of this law there is a possibility that Hungary will begin to block the movement of Ukraine to the EU, promoting its demands for a minority.
Recall that earlier Hungary had already blocked initiatives on Ukraine in NATO in connection with the entry into force of a language law in Ukraine in order to push through the necessary changes in the interests of its own national minority. However, with the outbreak of the war, this topic faded into the background.
We also analyzed in detail one more the law that came into force - "On Media"and told how Putin boasted of unprecedented volumes of energy supplies to China and invited Xi Jinping to Moscow.
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